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                高考英语阅读理解解题技巧来袭!备战2020高考,助你冲刺满分

                时间:2018-10-06 11:02 来源:未知 作者:admin 阅读:

                关于高考英语

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                阅读理解读不懂

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                不要让未来的你

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                赶快学起来!

                今天,小编为大家整理了,高考英语阅读理解答题技巧

                · 阅读理解题型例析 ·

                高考阅读理解体裁丰富,命题灵活。要做好高考阅读理解,需要熟悉各题型的命题规律,对症解题。

                在一套高考英语试题中,阅读理解题型通常包含四篇文章,语篇类型多样化,主题语境丰富。该题型主要考查考生理解文章主旨大意、文章基本结构、文中具体信息、作者的观点和态度等方面的能力,主要通过以下几种题型进行考查。

                现以2017年高考全国卷I和2018年高考全国卷I、全国卷Ⅱ、全国卷Ⅲ为例,谈谈如何做好高考阅读理解题。

                一、 细节理解题

                细节理解题在高考阅读理解中占的比例比较大。它所针对的是文章的具体事实、情节等的理解。常见的设题方式有:

                1. 以what, who, which, when, where, why, how等疑问词来提问,针对文章中的具体事件、人物、时间、地点、原因(目的)、方式等来设题。

                2. 针对文章的某个具体细节设题,考查考生对此事实细节的理解能力。

                (A)

                【真题再现】(2017全国卷I)

                A build-it-yourself solar still(蒸馏器)is one of the best ways to obtain drinking water in areas where the liquid is not readily available. Developed by two doctors in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, it's an excellent water collector. Unfortunately, you must carry the necessary equipment with you, since it's all but impossible to find natural substitutes. The only components required, though, are a 5'5' sheet of clear or slightly milky plastic, six feet of plastic tube, and a container — perhaps just a drinking cup — to catch the water. These pieces can be folded into a neat little pack and fastened on your belt.

                To construct a working still, use a sharp stick or rock to dig a hole four feet across and three feet deep. Try to make the hole in a damp area to increase the water catcher's productivity. Place your cup in the deepest part of the hole. Then lay the tube in place so that one end rests all the way in the cup and the rest of the line runs up — and out — the side of the hole.

                Next, cover the hole with the plastic sheet, securing the edges of the plastic with dirt and weighting the sheet's center down with a rock. The plastic should now form a cone(圆锥体) with 45-degree-angled sides. The low point of the sheet must be centered directly over, and no more than three inches above, the cup.

                The solar still works by creating a greenhouse under the plastic. Ground water evaporates (蒸发) and collects on the sheet until small drops of water form, run down the material and fall off into the cup. When the container is full, you can suck the refreshment out through the tube, and won't have to break down the still every time you need a drink.

                34. What is the last step of constructing a working solar still?

                A. Dig a hole of a certain size.

                B. Put the cup in place.

                C. Weight the sheet's center down.

                D. Cover the hole with the plastic sheet.

                【试题解析】

                C。细节理解题。

                根据第二、三段可知,四个选项正确的顺序是A→B→D→C,故选C。

                【备考策略】

                分析上题,我们不难看出命题者在试题的艺术性和隐蔽性方面下足了功夫。正确选项往往是对文章信息的高度概括或者巧妙转述,很少直接照搬原句。考生在解题时应注意:

                1. 准确捕捉和定位题目所涉及的细节,不要被“假”信息所迷惑;

                2. 对信息要合理筛选,不能生搬硬套;

                3. 对分散、复杂的信息要统筹考虑。

                (B)

                【真题再现】(2018全国卷Ⅰ)

                We may think we're a culture that gets rid of our worn technology at the first sight of something shiny and new, but a new study shows that we keep using our old devices(装置) well after they go out of style. That's bad news for the environment — and our wallets — as these outdated devices consume much more energy than the newer ones that do the same things.

                To figure out how much power these devices are using, Callie Babbitt and her colleagues at the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York tracked the environmental costs for each product throughout its life — from when its minerals are mined to when we stop using the device. This method provided a readout for how home energy use has evolved since the early 1990s. Devices were grouped by generation. Desktop computers, basic mobile phones, and box-set TVs defined 1992. Digital cameras arrived on the scene in 1997. And MP3 players, smart phones, and LCD TVs entered homes in 2002, before tablets and e-readers showed up in 2007.

                As we accumulated more devices, however, we didn't throw out our old ones. "The living-room television is replaced and gets planted in the kids' room, and suddenly one day, you have a TV in every room of the house," said one researcher. The average number of electronic devices rose from four per household in 1992 to 13 in 2007. We're not just keeping these old devices — we continue to use them. According to the analysis of Babbitt's team, old desktop monitors and box TVs with cathode ray tubes are the worst devices with their energy consumption and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions(排放)more than doubling during the 1992 to 2007 window.

                So what's the solution(解决方案)? The team's data only went up to 2007, but the researchers also explored what would happen if consumers replaced old products with new electronics that serve more than one function, such as a tablet for word processing and TV viewing. They found that more on-demand entertainment viewing on tablets instead of TVs and desktop computers could cut energy consumption by 44%.

                34. Which of the following uses the least energy?

                A. The box-set TV.

                B. The tablet.

                C. The LCD TV.

                D. The desktop computer.

                【试题解析】

                B。细节理解题。

                本题题干意为:以下哪种装置耗能最少?关键词为energy,四个选项为不同的装置。通读全文可知,本文就是围绕着装置的耗能展开的。根据文章第一段可知,新装置消耗的能量最少,文章第二段指出与其他几种装置相比,平板电脑出现的时间最晚,为最新的科技产品,再根据最后一段可知,平板电脑比电视和台式电脑消耗的能量少,故B项正确。

                【备考策略】

                文章主题的阐述需要大量细节信息的支持,这些细节对于理解全文内容至关重要。细节理解题常见的解题技巧有:审清题干,通过关键词找准文章对应信息;利用表示时间、空间、因果、类比、转折、并列等关系的连词,准确把握上下文关系;注意文中信息和选项信息的区别,避免以偏概全、偷梁换柱等。

                二、 推理判断题

                推理判断题是高考阅读理解中的高层次题型,具有较高的区分度。推理判断题考查的是考生对文章的深层理解能力,往往针对作者的观点态度,人物的情感以及文章的出处来设题。题干中往往含有一些标志性词语,如learn, infer, suggest, conclude等。

                (A)

                【真题再现】(2017全国卷I)

                I work with Volunteers for Wildlife, a rescue and education organization at Bailey Arboretum in Locust Valley. Trying to help injured, displaced or sick creatures can be heartbreaking; survival is never certain. However, when it works, it is simply beautiful.

                I got a rescue call from a woman in Muttontown. She had found a young owl(猫头鹰) on the ground. When I arrived, I saw a 2-to 3-week-old owl. It had already been placed in a carrier for safety.

                I examined the chick(雏鸟) and it seemed fine. If I could locate the nest, I might have been able to put it back, but no luck. My next work was to construct a nest and anchor it in a tree.

                The homeowner was very helpful. A wire basket was found. I put some pine branches into the basket to make this nest safe and comfortable. I placed the chick in the nest, and it quickly calmed down.

                Now all that was needed were the parents, but they were absent. I gave the homeowner a recording of the hunger screams of owl chicks. These advertise the presence of chicks to adults; they might also encourage our chick to start calling as well. I gave the owner as much information as possible and headed home to see what news the night might bring.

                A nervous night to be sure, but sometimes the spirits of nature smile on us all! The homeowner called to say that the parents had responded to the recordings. I drove over and saw the chick in the nest looking healthy and active. And it was accompanied in the nest by the greatest sight of all — LUNCH! The parents had done their duty and would probably continue to do so.

                27. How would the author feel about the outcome of the event?

                A. It's unexpected.

                B. It's beautiful.

                C. It's humorous.

                D. It's discouraging.

                【试题解析】

                B。推理判断题。

                从文章第二段往后可知,作者为小猫头鹰建了巢穴,并通过录音吸引来其父母,小猫头鹰健康成长,所以结果是美好的,故选B。

                【备考策略】

                推理判断题针对的是文章中的隐含信息,其正确选项往往是用创造性语言来表述文章的隐含意义,即文章没有明说,但通过相关信息我们可以得出某种结论。针对此类题目,考生应该做到:1. 体会文章的弦外之音,挖掘文章中的隐含信息;2. 推断应做到有根有据,而不是凭空臆断;3. 推理判断题的正确选项一般命题者会在原文的基础上再加工或用创造性的语言来表述,因此在做题时,需要充分理解原文。

                (B)

                【真题再现】(2018全国卷Ⅱ)

                We've all been there: in a lift, in line at the bank or on an airplane, surrounded by people who are, like us, deeply focused on their smartphones or, worse, struggling with the uncomfortable silence.

                What's the problem? It's possible that we all have compromised conversational intelligence. It's more likely that none of us start a conversation because it's awkward and challenging, or we think it's annoying and unnecessary. But the next time you find yourself among strangers, consider that small talk is worth the trouble. Experts say it's an invaluable social practice that results in big benefits.

                Dismissing small talk as unimportant is easy, but we can't forget that deep relationships wouldn't even exist if it weren't for casual conversation. Small talk is the grease(润滑剂) for social communication, says Bernardo Carducci, director of the Shyness Research Institute at Indiana University Southeast. "Almost every great love story and each big business deal begins with small talk," he explains. "The key to successful small talk is learning how to connect with others, not just communicate with them."

                In a 2014 study, Elizabeth Dunn, associate professor of psychology at UBC, invited people on their way into a coffee shop. One group was asked to seek out an interaction(互动) with its waiter; the other, to speak only when necessary. The results showed that those who chatted with their server reported significantly higher positive feelings and a better coffee shop experience. "It's not that talking to the waiter is better than talking to your husband," says Dunn. "But interactions with peripheral(边缘的) members of our social network matter for our well-being also."

                Dunn believes that people who reach out to strangers feel a significantly greater sense of belonging, a bond with others. Carducci believes developing such a sense of belonging starts with small talk. "Small talk is the basis of good manners," he says.

                34. What does the coffee-shop study suggest about small talk?

                A. It improves family relationships.

                B. It raises people's confidence.

                C. It matters as much as a formal talk.

                D. It makes people feel good.

                【试题解析】

                D。推理判断题。

                文章第四段说到,结果表明那些同服务生交谈的人明显有着更积极的情感和较好的咖啡馆体验,同社交网络的边缘人员闲谈的感觉会很好。选项D意为“它让人们感觉良好”,与题意相符。

                【备考策略】

                推理判断题的题干中往往含有一些标志性词语,如learn, infer, suggest, conclude等。考生需要根据文章提供的事实和线索进行逻辑推理,推测作者未提到的事实或某事发生的可能性等,但必须以事实为依据,切忌脱离原文,主观臆断。了解推理判断题干扰项的设置规律能够有效地帮助考生答题。干扰项的特点包括偷换概念、因果倒置、偷梁换柱(对文章不同内容的嫁接)、扩大或缩小范围(对文中提到的内容通过更改形容词等方式放大或缩小处理)、断章取义、不相关事实罗列、无中生有等。

                三、 词义猜测题

                词义猜测题考查的可以是某个单词,也可以是某个习语;可以是生词,也可以是熟词生义,还可以是代词的指代。

                (A)

                【真题再现】(2017全国卷I)

                A build-it-yourself solar still(蒸馏器) is one of the best ways to obtain drinking water in areas where the liquid is not readily available. Developed by two doctors in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, it's an excellent water collector. Unfortunately, you must carry the necessary equipment with you, since it's all but impossible to find natural substitutes. The only components required, though, are a 5'5' sheet of clear or slightly milky plastic, six feet of plastic tube, and a container — perhaps just a drinking cup — to catch the water. These pieces can be folded into a neat little pack and fastened on your belt.

                To construct a working still, use a sharp stick or rock to dig a hole four feet across and three feet deep. Try to make the hole in a damp area to increase the water catcher's productivity. Place your cup in the deepest part of the hole. Then lay the tube in place so that one end rests all the way in the cup and the rest of the line runs up — and out — the side of the hole.

                Next, cover the hole with the plastic sheet, securing the edges of the plastic with dirt and weighting the sheet's center down with a rock. The plastic should now form a cone(圆锥体) with 45-degree-angled sides. The low point of the sheet must be centered directly over, and no more than three inches above, the cup.

                The solar still works by creating a greenhouse under the plastic. Ground water evaporates (蒸发) and collects on the sheet until small drops of water form, run down the material and fall off into the cup. When the container is full, you can suck the refreshment out through the tube, and won't have to break down the still every time you need a drink.

                33. What does the underlined phrase "the water catcher" in paragraph 2 refer to?

                A. The tube.

                B. The still.

                C. The hole.

                D. The cup.

                【试题解析】

                B。词义猜测题。

                根据上文可知,本文介绍如何制作蒸馏器来储存饮用水,本段介绍增加“蒸馏器”效率的方法,故划线部分替代的是本段第一句所提到的a working still,故选B。

                【备考策略】

                词义猜测题的干扰项,命题者往往采取“指鹿为马”、“答非所问”等手段来增加试题的难度。针对此类题目,考生应该做到:

                1. 把握好上下文,尤其是生词前后的提示信息;

                2. 可借助构词法来判断单词的意义;

                3. 对习语的理解,一定要结合上下文所叙述的事实,不要被表面意义所迷惑。

                (B)

                【真题再现】 (2018全国卷Ⅰ)

                Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers, small, tightly knit (联系)groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other. Some language experts believe that 10,000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them.

                Soon afterwards, many of those people started settling down to become farmers, and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centuries, trade, industrialization, the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.

                At present, the world has about 6,800 languages. The distribution of these languages is hugely uneven. The general rule is that mild zones have relatively few languages, often spoken by many people, while hot, wet zones have lots, often spoken by small numbers. Europe has only around 200 languages; the Americas about 1,000; Africa 2 400; and Asia and the Pacific perhaps 3,200, of which Papua New Guinea alone accounts for well over 800. The median number (中位数)of speakers is a mere 6,000, which means that half the world's languages are spoken by fewer people than that.

                Already well over 400 of the total of, 6,800 languages are close to extinction(消亡), with only a few elderly speakers left. Pick, at random, Busuu in Cameroon (eight remaining speakers),Chiapaneco in Mexico(150), Lipan Apache in the United States(two or three)or Wadjigu in Australia (one, with a question-mark): none of these seems to have much chance of survival.

                29. Which of the following best explains “dominant” underlined in paragraph 2?

                A. Complex.

                B. Advanced.

                C. Powerful.

                D. Modern.

                【试题解析】

                C。词义猜测题。

                根据划线单词所在句子中的such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over可推知,dominant意为“占统治地位的,强大的”,选项C与之意思最为接近。

                【备考策略】

                首先要明白英语单词的含义随不同的语境会有所不同,考生应根据上下文正确理解词义。词义猜测题的考查一般有两种方式:对生词含义的推断;熟词生义或是在特定场合的含义。其解题技巧包括:利用上下文进行推理猜测;通过构词法猜词;通过文中出现的同义词或反义词进行猜词;通过因果关系猜测;通过定义或释义关系来推测词义;通过句法功能来猜测词义等。

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